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Analysis of Auto transformer | Electrical Machines | GATE Preparation | EE
Real Life Application
Autotransformers are frequently used in power applications to interconnect systems operating at different voltage classes, for example 132 kV to 66 kV for transmission.
Another application in industry is to adapt machinery built (for example) for 480 V supplies to operate on a 600 V supply. They are also often used for providing conversions between the two common domestic mains voltage bands in the world (100 V—130 V and 200 V—250 V).
In audio applications, tapped autotransformers are used to adapt speakers to constant-voltage audio distribution systems, and for impedance matching such as between a low-impedance microphone and a high-impedance amplifier input.
To understand the concept with clarity it’s important to have basic idea of working of Transformers.
An autotransformer has a single winding with two end terminals, and one or more terminals at intermediate tap points, or it is a transformer in which the primary and secondary coils have part of, or all of their turns in common. The primary voltage is applied across two of the terminals, and the secondary voltage taken from two terminals, almost always having one terminal in common with the primary voltage. The primary and secondary circuits therefore have a number of windings turns in common. Since the volts-per-turn is the same in both windings, each develops a voltage in proportion to its number of turns.
In an autotransformer part of the current flows directly from the input to the output, and only part is transferred inductively, allowing a smaller, lighter, cheaper core to be used as well as requiring only a single winding.
A two winding transformer can be reconfigured as an Auto-Transformer. The KVA rating of the autotransformer drastically increases. Also the efficiency increases as the losses remains almost same.
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